Open Fracture Management: Antibiotics

Introduction Open fracture wounds are considered high energy injuries that come with a high risk of infection due to the potential exposure of bone and tissue to environmental pathogens. The Gustilo- Anderson classification system grades open fractures and can be utilized to guide antimicrobial prophylaxis. For Type I fractures, which are clean wounds less than […]

Sodium Bicarbonate for Hyperkalemia in the Emergency Department

Introduction Sodium bicarbonate was previously recommended for hyperkalemia treatment and was once considered a first-line agent for transcellular shift. Studies evaluating the beneficial effects of sodium bicarbonate used an isotonic infusion commonly  ~ 150 mEq/ 1000ml Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate or “amp of bicarb” has an osmolality of 2000 mOsm, about 7x higher than plasma. There’s […]